Scroll Up Get A Quote

Web Development | 51 Min Read

Best Programming Languages To Learn In 2022

Best Programming Languages To Learn In 2022

Article Overview

Post Views: 289 Views

Posted on: Thursday April 21, 2022

Reading Time: 51 minutes
Written by: Sanjali Das

Web development is a perpetually evolving space where there are seemingly infinite possibilities. When you look back from its genesis back in the 90s, web development has grown cosmic, and today, even in 2022, we see no end to this evolution. Therefore, it is a promising domain for building a career, and the constant change and the critical need to adapt to that change make this field heavily incentivizing. To arch a career in this field, a web development company in UAE suggests one delve deep and possess extensive knowledge of various programming languages. However, unlike the contemporary and archaic languages, there are several programming languages for the web, and choosing which language to study often gets confusing for aspiring web developers.

 

In this blog, we will discuss some of the best programming languages in 2022, giving you a general understanding of each which will help you decide which programming language you seek to learn. But before that, we will reflect on some common questions regarding programming languages for better comprehension.

 

What is a programming language?

 

In simple words, programming language means a set of rules commanding a computing device to perform specific tasks. C++, C, BASIC, Java, COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal, and Ada are some of the high-level programming languages, to name a few. Hence, like any other language which facilitates communication, a programming language is a computer’s language with its syntax, structure, and rules that the machine can understand and follow and carry out the operation without glitches.

 

What are the different types of programming languages?

 

Now you may wonder why are there so many programming languages and how are they different from each other?

 

Each programming language is different in terms of concept, syntax, and structure. Thus, they are classified into three categories:

 

  • Low-Level Language

 

A machine-dependent language is a low-level language that the computer can interpret fast but is difficult for humans to read. The bright side of low-level language is that a processor does not require compilers to run the low-level programs, resulting in a faster run time.

 

Low-level language is further categorized as:

 

Machine level language

 

It is the first generation programming language, represented in binary or hexadecimal format. It is also known as machine code, and it does not require a translator to convert the code, thus directly executable, which further makes the execution comparatively faster.

 

Assembly level language

 

This is a second-generation programming language that is more symbolic and readable for humans. For this language, an assembler is required, which converts the assembly codes into machine codes, resulting in less memory and time to execute.

 

  • High-level language

 

Contrary to low-level programming language, this language is machine-independent. This language is much more comprehensible for humans since it comprises words. So developers can write programs quickly, and it is legible for a layman, too, making it easier to comprehend, read, write and maintain. However, a compiler is required to convert the codes into machine language. It is further categorized into:-

 

Procedural-Oriented Programming (POP) Language

 

Based on the concept of procedural call and derived from structured programming, POP is a language divided into procedures known as routine or functions. It enables codes to be reused in different parts.

 

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Langauge

 

This language is based on objects; that is to say, it is divided into parts called objects. One of the noteworthy attributes of the OOP language is its implementation of actual concepts like polymorphism, inheritance, etc. The other attribute is that it is easier to use, execute, modify and debug, making it a fast and efficient language.

 

Natural Language

 

Communication is a two-way street, and machines use natural language to comprehend human language, thus used in tasks like translation, entity recognition, automated summarization, etc.

 

  • Middle-Level Language

 

It is also known as an intermediate programming language and is in the middle of low-level programming language and high-level programming language. It is user-friendly, supporting high-level programming language yet similar to machine-level language.

 

Do some programming languages work better than others?

 

Yes, though inherently, all programming languages work similarly; some tend to work faster than others depending on the level of abstraction of each language, things it can consider automatically, and things that have to be fed manually. Other than that, the following factors are also elemental:

 

Seldom automatic memory management reduces the language’s pace compared to those that do not enforce automatic memory management.

 

It takes more time when a language is compiled since the source code is translated into machine code.

 

The efficiency of the compiler influences the speed.

 

Languages using an interpreter for translation reduce the pace of the software while executing the program line by line. Moreover, it requires start-up time.

 

Best Programming Languages To Learn in 2022:-

 

(1) JavaScript

 

JavaScript

 

As per Stack Overflow’s 2020 Developer Survey, JavaScript is the most commonly used programming language globally, capturing 69.7% of the web development market. What makes it a popular choice is that it can be used for both frontend and backend development. Furthermore, other than adding behavior and interactivity to webpages, it also adds several libraries and frameworks; therefore, it is the most preferred choice of every web developer when it comes to making vivacious web elements, such as clickable buttons, animated graphics, etc.

 

  • Features

 

Some of its other remarkable features are:

 

Validating User’s Input

 

JavaScript is convenient when using forms since it can validate user input for errors, saving the time consumed by manual rectification of the same. Even if the user leaves a required field unattended, the information is still reflected incorrectly, and JavaScript inspects that before sending it to the server.

 

Greater Level of Control

 

It provides a greater level of control to the browser than being entirely dependent on the webserver. As a result, it provides additional functionalities to the browser, which reduces server load and network traffic.

 

Generates HTML Content

 

JavaScript possesses helpful features which can create HTML content for the web, allowing adding texts, images, links, tables, etc., after an event has occurred.

 

  • Advantages

 

Speed

 

It is an interpreted language; therefore, it reduces the time taken in a compilation by other programming languages (for example, Java). In addition to that, it is also a client-end script; therefore, it executes programs faster, saving the time taken in connecting with the server.

 

Simplicity

 

It is simple to learn and even simpler to understand both for the user and the developers and is feasible in implementation and cost-effective in developing dynamic web content.

 

Simplicity

 

Server Load

 

Since it is operational on the client’s end, the data validates on the browser itself instead of sending it to the server; therefore, in the case of discrepancy, the whole website is not reloaded; the browser reloads only the selected glitched segment of the page.

 

  • Disadvantages

 

Single Inheritance

 

Since the user can view JavaScript, it can also be influenced by malicious parties, who may use the source code without authentication, and input some code into the site compromising the data security on the website.

 

Lacks Debugging Facility

 

Although some HTML editors support debugging, it is not as efficient as other editors like C#/C++. Furthermore, since the browser shows no errors, it becomes arduous for the developer to detect the problem.

 

Single Inheritance

 

JavaScript does not support multiple inheritances, only single inheritance, which might be needful as an object-oriented language characteristic for some programs.

 

JavaScript - Level and Platform and degree of use and annual salary projection details

 

(2) Python

 

Python

 

You look for an open-source language that is easy to learn and use, and you find Python. Following JavaScript in the league of top programming languages with 41.6% market dominance, Python allows a web developer to use several programming styles, functional, reflective, object-oriented, etc. It is employed for backend development, data science, web application development, and automation, and it has delivered several web platforms, including YouTube and Google Search.

 

  • Features

 

Some of its other remarkable features are:

 

Easy to Code

 

Irrespective of being a high-level programming language, Python is straightforward to learn. In a matter of few days or hours, anyone can learn it, though mastering all its advanced concepts and modules might take some more time, yet learning its basic syntax is very unlike other programming languages like C#, C++, and Java.

 

Easy to Read

 

When you read Python, it almost seems like reading everyday English. There is no usage of brackets, semicolons, and indentations to define the code block. By merely giving it a read, one can tell what the code is supposed to do.

 

Portable

 

Python is portable, which means that the same code can be used on different machines. Hence, if you write Python code on Mac, you can run it later on Windows and Linux without altering it and writing a program multiple times on multiple platforms.

 

  • Advantages

 

Extensible

 

Python code is a highly extensible language; that is to say, the code can be extended into other languages such as C++.

 

Expressive

 

Python makes the performance of complex tasks possible commanded by a few lines of coding.

 

Expressive coding

 

Interpreted

 

Interpreting a programming language means executing the source code line by line instead of doing it all simultaneously. The contemporaries of Python, like C++ and Java, are not interpreted and thus have to be compiled before running them. However, Python needs no compilation since the interpreter processes it at runtime.

 

  • Disadvantages

 

Slow at Runtime

 

Python is immeasurably slow compared to its contemporaries like PHP, C++, and Java. It concerns developers a lot, especially when they have to write many code lines for humongous programs. The execution of the code line by line by the interpreter instead of the compiler, unlike its contemporaries, consumes time.

 

High Memory Consumption

 

Python lacks a preference for memory-intensive tasks since the flexibility of data types makes its memory consumption high.

 

Inculcates Inflexibility in Programmers

 

Python is the most straightforward programming language globally, and its developers who have been inclined to use it for an extended period often find using other programming languages since they seem difficult to them. Its simplicity makes it easy, but it also makes one stiff.

 

Python - Level and Platform and degree of use and annual salary projection details

 

(3) HTML

 

HTML

 

HTML, short for HyperText Markup Language, is the foundation of web development, and every web developer must be familiar with it. Hence, it captures 62.4% of the market and is the second most common programming language after JavaScript. Though it is not a full-fledged programming language, it is the standard language for creating web pages.

 

  • Features

 

Some of its other remarkable features are:

 

Easy

 

HTML is easy to use and easier to learn. When learning web development, HTML is the first chapter and an important one. It uses simple tags, which serve a particular purpose, and there it is not hectic in terms of case sensitivity. Moreover, it is easy to understand, and therefore one can alter it as and when required. Moreover, it does not worry a developer with errors and problems like its offspring (JavaScript, PHP, etc.) if they ever forget to close the tags or make a mistake in the code.

 

Easy coding

 

Free

 

It is free of cost; no one does not have to purchase a particular software and different plugins since it does not require one. From a business’s perspective, HTML is cost-effective since one does not have to incur the cost of purchasing a license, and they can develop the whole website with the HTML language.

 

Supported by All Browsers

 

All browsers across the globe support HTML, so one does not have to worry about their website being written in HTML being supported by the browser. The website will quickly show up on all browsers if optimized well. In addition to that, HTML provides an easy way to optimize the website written in HTML.

 

  • Advantages

 

Search Engine Friendly

 

It is easier to create SEO-compliant websites with HTML since they are easy to read and be accessed by web crawlers, reducing parsing time, and load time of the page and thus with improved performance.

 

Simple to Edit

 

HTML is easy to edit since it does not require a particular interface or platform for editing. They were written on a simple notepad which can be edited simply by a text editor.

 

Lightweight

 

It is a lightweight language and has a high signal-to-noise ratio compared to other forms of communication. Resultingly, HTML code gets downloaded faster, which is also highly compressive.

 

  • Disadvantages

 

Not Preferable for Dynamic Pages

 

Back when HTML came into being, websites served a limited purpose to display static words and images. However, times have changed, and a website has to serve more dynamic purposes, like Twitter with infinite scrolling pages. Such modern features that one would expect from a modern website can not be attained using basic HTML. To create a webpage that can generate such dynamic content, web developers have to learn other programming languages like PHP, JavaScript, ASP, etc. Then, code snippets written in those particular languages are added to the original HTML file.

 

Limited to Displaying Content

 

HTML does a great job when it comes to structuring content since it is a structuring language. So all that one has to do is add a virtual label to each section of the content, for instance, adding a “tag around that section of that page so that the web browser treats the section as a blog. However, HTML lags when it comes to aestheticism. To attain this, a different language, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), is employed, and a web developer using HTML has to maintain two files, one that contains the HTML files and the structured content and the other being a CSS file that dictates the appearance, appeal, and aesthetics of the page.

 

Unpredictable Behavior Across the Browsers

 

Try viewing the same website on different browsers, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome. You will be surprised to see that the same page seldom displays differently. However, those changes are minor, like different margins between the website’s main content and at the top of the web browser window. However, in some cases, it has been observed that some elements are entirely missing because of a new HTML property that is not under implementation by the browser being used.

 

HTML - Level and Platform and degree of use and annual salary projection details

 

(4) C#

 

C#

 

C# (called C Sharp) is the genesis of Microsoft and is an object-oriented programming language created initially for the .NET framework for building Windows applications. It is now used for backend development and developing mobile applications, games, and more. Other than running on Windows, it also works on Android, Linux, and iOS platforms.

 

  • Features

 

Some of its other remarkable features are:

 

Constant Interpolated Strings

 

With Constant Interpolated Strings, one can apply syntax to a string quickly and conveniently. For example, a combination of strings and an expression is an interpolated string. On resolving such string, the expression gets executed, and the resultant string value is added instead. Previously string interpolation was limited only to strings, and a constant string could not be interpolated. However, now even a string declared constant can be interpolated, though only a constant string can be used in the expression then.

 

Property Patterns Extended

 

An extended property pattern improves the readability of code in accessing a child property from a parent property, which was inaccessible at the same level.

 

Global Using

 

Using the new global feature, referring to the same directive in each class and page can be avoided. Instead, add the “global” modifier as a prefix to the “using” namespace or directive, and the reference to all the files in the project will be applied.

 

  • Advantages

 

C Family of Languages

 

Learning C# makes learning C, C++, or Java easy as all these programming languages use similar syntax and principles. Hence, developers can help each other on C-related projects. Moreover, the interoperability feature of C# enables the merging of technology stacks in one project.

 

C Family of Languages

 

Visual Studio as a native IDE

 

Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a workspace that provides the means for writing, compiling, debugging, and testing a code for the developers during the development period. Visual Studio is a reliable inbuilt IDE since it operates as a single workspace for all .NET applications and supports other languages such as C and C++.

 

Inbuilt Garbage Collector

 

C# has an inbuilt garbage collector to manage the memory allocation to maintain the application’s performance. It tracks the unused objects and frees memory automatically, hence easing the burden of developers to write commands to reclaim unused objects and clean the memory, avoiding memory leaks and allocating it to new ones.

 

  • Disadvantages

 

Hard learning curve

 

Honestly, C# is not the most accessible language to learn compared to its contemporaries. Adding .NET libraries adds another level of complexity. .NET Libraries get updated frequently, and one has to learn thousands of resources before getting into C# programming. Furthermore, one must work with multiple runtimes to develop cross-platform applications as C# or .NET applications do not operate on Linux and macOS natively.

 

Dependence on the .NET platform

 

C# relies immensely on the .NET to run on different operating systems, and .NET is not flexible when considered the leading technology stack. Therefore, when using bare C#, one has to use different runtimes for different platforms and mold the code as per the requirement of the corresponding system.

 

Not the absolute best in terms of performance

 

The performance of a language is measured based on the time taken in the compilation and the performance of the actual application. C# takes a similar time to compile compared to its contemporary Java, though C#.NET is faster. However, when compared to C++, the latter wins because, unlike C++, C# passes two phases of compilation, first at the build stage where the code compiles into an intermediate language and then later into machine code when executed at runtime.

 

C - Level and Platform and degree of use and annual salary projection details

 

(5) C++

 

C++

 

Another extension of objective C is C++. It is a middle-level programming language developed in 1980 to accommodate features like exception handling, type checking, etc., and object-oriented capabilities to the C language while retaining the speed and efficiency of the C language family. It is the predecessor of the C# language.

 

  • Features

 

Some of its other remarkable features are:

 

OOP (Object-Oriented Programming)

 

Unlike objective C, a procedural language, C++ is an Objective-oriented language. Thus, it employs objects while programming, which helps implement real-time problems based on data abstraction, encapsulation, hiding, and polymorphism.

 

Machine Independent

 

C++ allows using the same piece of code in varied environments; thus, if you happen to write a code to find the name, age, and salary of an employee on Microsoft Windows, and then you switch your operating system to Linux, then also the code will work in the same fashion.

 

High-Level Programming Language

 

C++ is a high-level programming language, unlike objective C, a mid-level programming language. Therefore it is in more comprehensible language.

 

High-Level Programming Language

 

  • Advantage

 

Simple

 

C++ carries a simple context, making it easier for amateur developers to learn, especially for those who know objective C since they carry similar syntax.

 

Multi-paradigm

 

The word “paradigm” means the style of programming and includes attributes like logic, structure, and procedure of the programming. Thus, C++ is a multi-paradigm language constituting three paradigms: generic, imperative, and object-oriented.

 

Low-Level of Manipulation

 

Because of its close association to C, a procedural language quite similar to machine language, low-level data manipulation is permissible at a certain level. Thus embedded systems and compilers are created with C++.

 

  • Disadvantages

 

Compromised Security

 

Though object-oriented programming offers security to the data being handled compared to other programming languages that are non-object-oriented, specific security issues exist due to the availability of friend functions, global variables, and pointers.

 

Use of Pointers

 

Pointers in both C and C++ are concepts difficult to grasp. Moreover, it has a high level of memory consumption. But on the other hand, misusing the pointers lead to the system crashing.

 

Lacks Built-In Thread

 

C++ doesn’t support built-in threads since threads are a new concept for C++. It was not there when C++ came into being. Although now, C++ supports lambda functions.

 

C advanced - Level and Platform and degree of use and annual salary projection details

 

(6) PHP

 

PHP

 

Hypertext Preprocessor or PHP is an interpreted, open-source scripting language for backend development. Developers find it highly reliable for building dynamic websites with voluminous data making it one of the most popular programming languages for web pages. As a result, PHP has born websites like Drupal and WordPress.

 

  • Features

 

Some of its other remarkable features are:

 

Object-Oriented

 

PHP, too, is an object-oriented programming language, supporting features like inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction, and polymorphism of data. Thus, one can develop complex reusable webpages, and therefore it stands at the same vantage point as its contemporaries like Java and Python.

 

Interpreted Language

 

PHP needs no compilation since it is an interpreted language, and it executes the source code itself; the code is platform-independent. Also, it offers other boons of being an interpreted language like dynamic typing and short executable program size.

 

Free/Open-Source

 

Being open-source, PHP can be downloaded and used freely, negating the hassle of purchasing licenses and incurring costs on development.

 

  • Advantages

 

Simplicity

 

What makes PHP so popular is its simplicity, which makes it easy to learn, even for beginners, thanks to being a well-structured programming language. Therefore, creating web services on PHP is extremely easy. In addition to that, it comes with several pre-defined functions relaxing the programmer’s task in optimization.

 

Simplicity

 

Flexibility

 

PHP scripts are highly compatible with various databases; thus, they can run on any device, mobile, tablet, PC, etc. Moreover, it is easy to embed and integrate with HTML, XML, JavaScript, and various servers like Apache, IIS, etc.

 

Efficient

 

Versatility, reliability, and efficiency are among the many boons of PHP programming language. The memory management of PHP is categorically efficient as it manages sessions well and eliminates unnecessary memory allocated.

 

  • Disadvantage

 

Compromised Security

 

PHP is vigorously chastised for security issues in terms of XSS, session hacking, SQL injection, and the revelation of source code. It is because of it being open-source where ASCII files are easily accessible.

 

Mishandling Errors

 

The process of handling errors and optimizing them is known as handling errors. PHP is observed in the developers’ fraternity as unreliable since it lacks many essential debugging tools, which results in poor maintenance of the application.

 

Below Average Performance

 

PHP lags in supporting the smooth functioning of multiple features at the same point in time. To further add to its critical disclaim, using more PHP tools delivers poor performance. Hence it makes a significant chink in its armor of being useful for content-based web applications.

 

PHP - Level and Platform and degree of use and annual salary projection details

 

(7) Java

 

Java

 

Java was created to enhance the C++ programming language based on the principle “Write Once Run Anywhere.” Today it is one of the most widely used backend programming languages for web development. Besides carrying the OOP concept, being an open-source language, and having a moderate learning curve, it also renders high productivity.

 

  • Features

 

Some of its other remarkable features are:

 

Platform Independent

 

Unlike C and C++, Java is not compiled into the platform-specific machine; instead, it is compiled in a platform-independent byte code which gets distributed over the web and interpreted by the Virtual Machine of whichever platform it is running on.

 

Neutral Architecture

 

The Java compiler generates an architectural neutral object file format, making the code execution on multiple processors coupled with the Java runtime system.

 

Multi-threaded

 

This feature enables writing programs that can perform many tasks simultaneously. In addition to that, it helps developers in making interactive and smoothly running applications.

 

Multi-threaded

 

  • Advantages

 

Simple

 

Java as a programming language is simple at its best. Merely understanding the basic concept of OOP Java makes it easy for one to master the language.

 

Secure

 

Java has security features that aid in developing tamper-free and virus-free systems since Java’s authentication technique is based on public-key encryption.

 

Robust

 

Java ensures eliminating error-prone situations by checking during the time of compile and runtime.

 

  • Disadvantages 

 

Slow and not up to the mark performance

 

Java consumes a lot of memory and is slow compared to other alternatives like C or C++ because each code gets interpreted to the machine-level code. Laso, it is observed that the garbage collector consumes more CPU time, leading to poor performance.

 

Poor GUI Appeal

 

Even though there are several GUI builders in Java that facilitate creating the graphical interface, such Swing, SWT, JavaFX, and JSF for creating GUI, it is unsuitable for complex UI because of the observed inconsistencies.

 

No Backup Facility

 

Java mainly focuses on storage and not on backing up the data, making it lose credibility among the developers.

 

Java - Level and Platform and degree of use and annual salary projection details

 

(8) SQL

 

SQL

 

Structured Query Language or SQL is a standard database language that compliments other programming languages. It is a data query language applied to manipulate databases and captures 56.9 % of the market.

 

  • Features

 

Some of its other remarkable features are:

 

Data Definition Language

 

SQL provides many commands, including Data Definition Language. For example, DDL commands defining relation schemes, deleting relations, and modifying relational schemes. This language controls all the structural operations performed on a database, also known as a data description language.

 

Data Definition Language

 

Relational Foundation

 

SQL is majorly employed for this, as the tabular structure of relational databases offers an intuitive user interface that makes SQL easy to learn and easier to use. Moreover, relational models have rendered a solid theoretical foundation that has to be a path bearer for implementing and developing and relational model, thus making SQL the database language for relational databases.

 

Scalability

 

The SQL database is vertically scalable, i.e., one can increase the load on a single server by adding more RAM, SSDs, or CPUs. However, due to how data is stored, SQL supports only vertical scaling.

 

  • Advantages 

 

Authentication and Security

 

SQL servers possess many security-enhancing features, like encrypted communication over SSL/TLS and Windows Data Protection API, which encrypts data at rest, authentication, and authorization. In addition, SQL can authenticate its user with their credentials, and it supports two authentication modes, Windows authentication mode, and mixed-mode.

 

Vendor Independence

 

All major DBMS vendors support SQL; therefore, SQL-based databases and programs can be migrated from one DBMS to another with no effort in conversion.

 

Portable

 

SQL-based databases support several platforms, including mainframes, PCs, workstations, specialized servers, etc.

 

  • Disadvantages

 

Difficult in Interfacing

 

Interfacing an SQL database is much more complicated than adding a few lines, unlike its contemporaries, making it difficult for users to access it.

 

Partial Control

 

SQL programmers do not have complete database autonomy because of the hidden business rules.

 

Cost

 

It is difficult for some programmers to access SQL because of the operating cost of some of its versions.

 

sql - Level and Platform and degree of use and annual salary projection details

 

PRO TIP

Choose any Object Oriented Programming Language and be a master of a single language rather than jumping into 2 or 3 languages. Be it any language, it is not going to decide your placement. It’s just a means to actually answer the DS. Algo questions. So just choose a language and focus on building your coding skills. Have a thorough OOPS knowledge and clear concepts of that particular language.

 

Concluding thoughts

As a beginner or enthusiast of web development who wishes to learn programming languages, which language one should learn ultimately depends on their interest and inclination toward the latest web development trends. The concept and foundation of all the languages are similar, and having mastered one makes it easy to learn others. While a full-stack developer has adept knowledge of both web development frameworks, backend and frontend programming language, which one you wish to pursue is entirely a matter of personal discretion, and since web development is in itself an incentivizing future, no matter which shore you dive from, there lies a sea of opportunities for you.

Written by: Sanjali Das @proweb.ae

Sanjali Das is a Content Writer at Pro Web. She is pursuing Law and is an ardent writer and reader. She interests in writing blogs, articles, snippets and commentaries in diverse topics.